Pollution in Pakistan Complete Report

Executive Summary

The basic aim of the report was to elaborate an extremely serious problem of Pakistan i.e. Pollution in Pakistan and to create some awareness regarding the matter so that we can overcome the situation in the near future. The results indicate that there are many problems like deforestation, lack of proper disposal of water and many more. It is highly recommended that authorities (government or non-government)  should take action.

Introduction

Pollution has become one of the major problems regarding the safety of a countries environment. It is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm and discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. The term environment refers to the total of all conditions which surround the man. There are different types of pollution such as water, air, noise, light pollution etc. First world countries such as the United States of America has an effective way of coping with these problems however in third world countries such as Pakistan there are not any proper measures to cope with this issue. These environmental concerns not only harm Pakistani citizens but also pose a serious threat to the country's economy.

The life in an ecosystem depends upon the environment which provides energy in the form of sunlight and nutrients for the living components of the ecosystem. Waste matter and energy produced by human beings through, their irresponsible and wanting activities cause the disturbance in the natural environment or is the ecosystem is called environment pollution.

Statement of problem

There is an increasing trend in environmental pollution. Water is polluted by four kinds of substances: traditional organic waste generated from industrial processes, chemical agents for fertilizers and pesticides for crop protection and silt from degraded catchments.

While it is estimated that three-fourths by volume of the wastewater generated is from municipal sources, industrial waste, though small in volume, contributes over one-half of the total pollutant load, and the major portion of this is coming from large and medium industries. For class-I cities of the Country, less than five percent of the total wastewater generated is collected and less than one-fourth of this treated.

Ambient air quality trends in the major cities indicate that levels of suspended particulate matter are higher than the prescribed standards or limits, especially in summer months. Levels of nitrogen dioxide are increasing in urban centers with growing emissions.

Environmental problems are becoming larger in scale. The chemical industry generates an increasing quantity of substances every year; adversely affecting essential aspects of the composition of the atmosphere, soil, and water. In the industrial high-density areas, in addition to the effects on local health and impact on nature, we are confronted with damage to the social and economic functions of the environment. With restrictions on releases to air and wastewater, hazardous chemical wastes are getting diverted to land for their disposal.

Human activities are also influencing the composition of the atmosphere. Despite uncertainties and insufficient knowledge, politic and scientific decisions concerning environmental change will increasingly be necessary.

Significance of the Study

This study would help the general public and the people who are directly or indirectly involved in the pollution of the country. The significance of this study would be to bring awareness to the people that pollution is now a major problem and also to make the authorities aware that if they do not take steps or make new policies to reduce this problem there would be many noticeable changes in the environment such as nowadays Smog has become visible in the atmosphere which is mainly caused by deforestation causing an increase in air pollution. As people, in general, lack the idea of pollution their carelessness also cause global warming which is the heating up of the earth. One of global warming major factor is pollution.

Scope of the study

This report will provide information regarding pollution. It will outline the types of pollution and its causes. The effect it is having on Pakistan’s environment and even the country’s economy. Also, steps or precautionary measures to stop polluting the environment will also be told in the report. National and international research’s and reports already done regarding this topic will be put in view to make a more weight in the information being presented.

Review of Related literature

The levels of ambient particles, smoke particles, and dust, which cause respiratory disease, are twice the world’s average and more than five times as high as that in industrialized and Latin American countries, says the Economic Survey of Pakistan 2005-2006 released in June.

The Survey found that the pollution in Pakistan’s cities had either crossed safe limits or reached the threshold value. The report says the major source of Suspended particulate matter in the country are vehicles industry, burning of soil waste, brick kilns and natural dust.

Pollution due to NOx emission. According to this pie chart NOx refers to a group of toxic gases that are also called nitrogen oxides in Pakistan emission of NOx by the vehicles are on peak which is 55%, whereas pollution due to emission through industrial, commercial and residential sources are 22%, as well as emission due to utilities are also same 22% and at last emission through all other sources are just 1% less than all others.  

According to a World Bank report, Air pollution is a growing environmental problem in Karachi, especially in the large metropolises. “Karachi’s urban air pollution is among the most severe in the world and it engenders significant damages to human health and the economy".

A study showed that on one of Karachi's main roads, the average noise level was around 90 dB and was capable of reaching about 110 dB.

The World Bank report in 2013 stated that Pakistan's top environmental issues include air pollution, inadequate supply of uncontaminated drinking water, noise pollution and the health deterioration of urban and rural populations due to pollution.
A published report by the Lancet Commission has identified pollution as the biggest environmental cause of disease and premature death in the world. The report claims that almost 22 percent of premature deaths in Pakistan are attributable to pollution — and this comes to about 300,000 deaths annually. This is more than the deaths caused by road accidents in the country, or three times the combined toll of tuberculosis, malaria, and AIDS. These are stunning findings and have caused a global stir.

A 2014 World Bank study, in a similar vein, pointed out that more than 22,600 deaths per year are directly or indirectly attributable to ambient air pollution in Pakistan. “Outdoor air pollution alone causes more than 80,000 hospital admissions per year, nearly 8,000 cases of chronic bronchitis and almost five million cases of lower respiratory” problems among children under five.

Ambient air pollution has been shown to reduce the growth and economic yield of a wide range of major. A study using open-top chambers ventilated with ambient or charcoal-jittered air in the vicinity of Lahore, Pakistan, has demonstrated a reduction of 46.7% and 34.8% in the grain yield for two cultivars of winter wheat.

Findings / Results

We can assume the various results from been our previous discussion due to which environmental pollution is increasing….
⦁ A large number of forests have been cut down on the name of progress due to which air pollution have been increased.

For example in Pakistan,
Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Pakistan lost an average of 41,100 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 1.63%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 24.4% to 2.02% per annum.



⦁ Lakes have been polluted due to which useable water have been polluted and the whole ecosystem have been disturbed.

It has been suggested that water pollution is the leading worldwide cause of deaths and diseases and that it accounts for the deaths of more than 14,000 people daily. An estimated 580 people in India die of water pollution related illness every day. About 90 percent of the water is polluted in the cities of China. As of 2007, half a billion Chinese had no access to safe drinking water.


⦁ It has been observed that we have been exposed to pollutants, for example, the water we drink or air in which we breathe all is polluted.
Refrence: http://www.asiawatertoday.com/un-environment-head-india-can-learn-how-to-curb-water-pollution-from-china.html

⦁ Systematic pollution is one of the major problems although people are aware of the hazardous of pollution but they don’t care. Human activities are also influencing the composition of the atmosphere
⦁ Due to a large number of population, the demand of thing has been increased which is directly or indirectly causing pollution. Because industries which are the major reason that generating more toxics and causing an environmental problem.

For Example, if we take an example of cars their rate of demand increased very largely from recent years which actually cause of pollution indirectly ….

Discussion

Environmental pollution is increasing day by day as a result of the increase in human activities that increase pollution. All of this is happening due to large industries, systematic pollution, and carelessness of authorities. Pesticides, chemical industries, and many other factors like this paying their role in polluting the environment and leading to health hazardous and disturbing the ecosystem.

That can be explained on the experience of past too if we go back on the statistics of the last few years it has been observed that there was no problem like that, but with passage of time when population increased the demand of product also increased and competition among the manufacturer also increased and as a result these actions; directly or indirectly poisoned the environment.

All of this did not happen overnight, that is a result of decades, and one thing which is a major problem in solving this issue is systematic pollution, for example, people are well aware of hazardous from pollution but they do it anyway.

Conclusion

The hypothesis drawn from the report is that the environmental problem has been reached to extinct level and could not be solved n few days or months.

It is observed that on the name of development there is going to be a deforestation at very fast rate due to which air pollution is increasing, more ever due to large demand rate the competition in the market among in the manufacture have been increased and a large number of industry have been set, but due to lack of proper place and disposal of wastage, land pollution and water pollution have been increased, man has been exposed to pollutant and many health hazardous have been created.

Although all of these things cannot be settled in days and months but with the passage of time and proper policies and their implementation that could be solved.

Recommendations 

Here are a few recommendations which could be made……
  • Cutting of forest (de-forestation) should be banned strictly and authorities should take proper action.
  • There should be a proper way for disposal of water which excreted from industries and industries should be out of the population.
  • Lead-free fuel should be used to reduce air pollution.
  • The government should make proper law and law enforcement force for implementation.
  • People should make more aware of it, for example through proper media and advertisements.
  • Strict legislative laws should be passed to give severe punishment to the offenders
  • There should he planting of trees (afforestation) also replanting of the trees which were already cut (reforestation).
  • Throwing of wrappers on roads should be fined and there should be a proper of recycling materials so it can be used again such as plastic.
  • Factories should be made away from cities surrounding population as it contributes to more air pollution.
  • The use of buses should be introduced more in the society as it exhaust fumes released from a car are in large number, therefore,e reducing the majority of the cars on the roads will reduce air pollution.
  • Should invest on renewable source of energy such as solar energy which run by sunlight
  • People should be aware of conserving energy doing simple things such as turning of the light when not on use. Small steps make a huge difference when working collectively.

References 

⦁ Air pollution levels in Pakistan high. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/air-pollution-levels-in-pakistan-high-8109
⦁ Ali Tauqeer Sheikh. (2017, October 28). Kill pollution, save lives. Retrieved from https://www.dawn.com/news/1366669
⦁ Environmental issues in Pakistan. (2017, November 5). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_issues_in_Pakistan
⦁ Forest data: Pakistan Deforestation Rates and Related Forestry Figures. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://rainforests.mongabay.com/deforestation/archive/Pakistan.htm
⦁ Kill pollution, Save Lives. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.lead.org.pk/lead/postDetail.aspx?postid=10358
⦁ Polluted water report - Google Search. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.google.com.pk/search?q=polluted+water+report&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiByajDyaDYAhXFVRQKHXH1AsEQ_AUICigB&biw=1366&bih=613
⦁ Rainforest loss slows. (2010, October 7). Retrieved from https://news.mongabay.com/2010/10/rainforest-loss-slows/
⦁ Water pollution. (2017, November 19). Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_pollution

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