Pollution in Pakistan || Introduction to the Study

Pollution in Pakistan

Introduction:

The life in an ecosystem depends upon the environment which provides energy in the form of sunlight and nutrients for the living components of the ecosystem. Waste matter and energy produced by human beings through, their irresponsible and wanting activities cause disturbance in the natural environment or in the ecosystem is called environmental pollution. We are concerned about the pollution from which the people of Pakistan are suffering. The need of proper measures to cope with the issue are to be highlighted.

Background Information:

Pollution has become one of the major problems regarding the safety of a country’s environment. It is the introduction of contaminants into an environment that causes instability, disorder, harm and discomfort to the ecosystem i.e. physical systems or living organisms. The term environment refers to the sum total of all conditions which surround man. There are different types of pollution such as water, air, noise, light pollution etc. First world countries such as United States of America has an effective way of coping with these problems however in third world countries such as Pakistan there are not any proper measures to cope with the issue. These environmental concerns not only harm Pakistani citizens but also pose a serious threat to the country's economy.

Statement of the problem:

Environmental pollution is on the increasing trend. Ambient air quality trends in the major cities indicate that levels of suspended particulate matter are higher than the prescribed standards or limits, especially in summer months. Levels of nitrogen dioxide are increasing in urban centers with growing emissions. Water is polluted by four kinds of substances: traditional organic waste generated from industrial processes, chemical agents for fertilizers and pesticides for crop protection and silt from degraded catchments.
Every year, the chemical industry generates an increasing quantity of substances adversely affecting essential aspects of the composition of the atmosphere, soil and water. In the industrial high-density areas, in addition to the effects on local health and impact on nature, we are confronted with damage to the social and economic functions of the environment. With restrictions on releases to air and waste water, hazardous chemical wastes are getting diverted to land for their disposal.
Human activities are also influencing the composition of the atmosphere. Despite uncertainties and insufficient knowledge, politic and scientific decisions concerning environmental change will increasingly be necessary.

Significance of the Study:

The significance of this study would be to bring awareness to the people that pollution is now a major problem and also to make the authorities aware that if they do not take steps or make new policies to reduce this problem there would be many noticeable changes in the environment such as nowadays Smog has become a visible in the atmosphere which is mainly caused by deforestation causing an increase an air pollution. As people in general lack the idea of pollution their carelessness also cause global warming which is the heating up of earth. One of the global warming major factor is pollution. This study would help the general public and the people who are directly or indirectly affected by the pollution of the country.

Review of Related literature:

According to a World Bank report Air pollution is a growing environmental problem in Karachi, especially in the large metropolises. “Karachi’s urban air pollution is among the most severe in the world and it engenders significant damages to human health and the economy."
A study showed that on one of Karachi's main roads, the average noise level was around 90 dB and was capable of reaching about 110 db.
The levels of ambient particles, smoke particles and dust, which cause respiratory disease, are twice the world’s average and more than five times as high as that in industrialized and Latin American countries, says the Economic Survey of Pakistan 2005-2006 released in June.
The Survey found that the pollution in Pakistan’s cities had either crossed safe limits or reached the threshold value. The report says the major source of Suspended particulate matter in the country are vehicles industry, burning of soil waste, brick kilns and natural dust.
Pollution due to NOx emission. According to this pie chart NOx refers to a group of toxic gases that are also called nitrogen oxides in Pakistan emission of NOx by the vehicles are on peak which is 55%, whereas pollution due to emission through industrial, commercial and residential sources are 22 %, as well as emission due to utilities are also same 22% and at last emission through all other sources are just 1% less than all others. 
The World Bank report in 2013 stated that Pakistan's top environmental issues include air pollution, inadequate supply of uncontaminated drinking water, noise pollution and the health deterioration of urban and rural populations due to pollution.
A 2014 World Bank study, in a similar vein, pointed out that more than 22,600 deaths per year are directly or indirectly attributable to ambient air pollution in Pakistan. “Outdoor air pollution alone causes more than 80,000 hospital admissions per year, nearly 8,000 cases of chronic bronchitis and almost five million cases of lower respiratory” problems among children under five.
Change in Forest Cover: Between 1990 and 2000, Pakistan lost an average of 41,100 hectares of forest per year. The amounts to an average annual deforestation rate of 1.63%. Between 2000 and 2005, the rate of forest change increased by 24.4% to 2.02% per annum.

Scope of study:

This report will provide information regarding pollution. It will outline the types of pollution and its causes. The effect it is having on Pakistan’s environment and even the country’s economy. Also steps or precautionary measures to stop polluting the environment will also be told in the report. National and international research’s and reports already done regarding this topic will be put in view to make a more weight in the information being presented.

Limitations of the Study:

The study might have a few shortcomings if we take into record the authenticity of the surveys. The actual situation in terms of the polluted environment is even more direful. The surveys might also fail to cover the entire scope of the study as a very few surveys take place in the rural areas of the Pakistan and that changes the studies a lot. Generally the surveyor manipulates the facts and figures to make a deal out of things so the authenticity of the collected data might also be a factor in the limitations of the study.
Organization
In the coming sections of the report, more and more findings related to the topic are to be shared. Moreover, conclusions are to be drawn from the results. While carefully analyzing the conclusions regarding all sorts of pollution in Pakistan, a few recommendations are to be presented. These recommendations are going to help resolve the pollution crisis to some extent.

Bibliography:

  • Air pollution levels in Pakistan high. (n.d.). Retrieved from
    http://www.downtoearth.org.in/news/air-pollution-levels-in-pakistan-high-8109
  • Ali Tauqeer Sheikh. (2017, October 28). Kill pollution, save lives. Retrieved from
    https://www.dawn.com/news/1366669
  • Forest data: Pakistan Deforestation Rates and Related Forestry Figures. (n.d.).
  • Retrieved from https://rainforests.mongabay.com/deforestation/archive/Pakistan.htm
  • Kill pollution, Save Lives. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.lead.org.pk/lead/postDetail.aspx?postid=10358

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